At a Glance:
Year became a federation: 1995
Current constitution in force since: 1995
Cconstituent units: 2 2 - Republika Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Head of State:
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Our work in Bosnia-Herzegovina
The Forum worked with local partners in Bosnia-Herzegovina to organize a one-week session of the Forum’s own two-week summer school for young practitioners of federalism in Sarajevo in September 2004.
Federalism in Bosnia and Herzegovina
A small federal country in Eastern Europe, with two constituent units called ‘entities’, Bosnia is constantly trying to reconcile the demands of its Serbian entity and its Muslim-Croatian counterpart.
Its territory contested over the centuries, Bosnia and Herzegovina was one of six republics that composed the Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia after World War II. Continuing conflict and the dismemberment of this entity brought the establishment of a Muslim-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1994.
In 1995, Serb, Croat and Muslim leaders signed the General Framework Agreement for Peace (GFPAP), which became the basis for peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The agreement outlined a new national constitution for Bosnia and Herzegovina, establishing Bosnia as a democracy consisting of two constituent “entities”: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is also known as the Bosniac-Croat Federation – a federation within a federation – and the highly centralized Republika Srpska.
The complexity of the government structure established in the GFAP, as well as attempts by nationalist parties to entrench themselves at the entity level, have prompted repeated intervention of the supervisory bodies established by the international agreements.
* Development assistance program countries