In partnership with the SÃ£o Paulo Finance Department, the Forum held a conference in SÃ£o Paulo, Brazil on 21 and 22 June 2001. The session dealt with the question of tax competition between the states, and alternative ways of attracting private sector investment. The issue of what Brazilian commentators sometimes call "fiscal war” has been for a number of years a vexing one for Brazilian federalism. The purpose of the conference was to bring together international experts and Brazilian practitioners with the aim of finding creative and innovative solutions to this problem. Among the international participants were William Dillinger of the World Bank, Canadian political scientist Richard Simeon, Canadian taxation expert FranÃ§ois Vaillancourt, European Union expert Magali Verdonck and US expert William Fox. More than three hundred Brazilian officials from all levels of government participated. There were fruitful debates on all aspects of the issue.