Water Resource Agreements Among States and Provinces of Federal Countries – A Comparative Review

1
WATER RESOURCE AGREEMENTS AMONG STATES AND PROVINCES OF
FEDERAL COUNTRIES A COMPARATIVE REVIEW
by
Stefano Burchi, chief, Development Law Service
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy
based on research work by Ms. Maria Milanes-Murcia1
Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTER-STATE AGREEMENTS 3
Water Allocation 3
Water Quality 8
River Basin Management 14
Public Participation 16
2.5 Groundwater 18
2.6 Overview of other common features in inter-state water agreements 22
2.6.1 Federal Role 22
2.6.2 Management institutions 23
2.6.3 Monitoring Programs 25
2.6.7 Dispute Resolution 26
2.6.8 Duration 27
3. CONCLUSIONS 28
References 30
List of Agreements 31
1 This paper is based on research work carried out by Ms. Maria Milanes-Murcia working as an intern with the
Development Law Service. Her contribution to the paper is gratefully acknowledged. The review work of Ms.
Ambra Gobena is also gratefully acknowledged. The views expressed in this paper are solely the author’s, and
they do not engage or purport to engage the Organization.
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1. INTRODUCTION
The diverse jurisdictions within a federal state and their respective array of regulations present
challenges in producing a single and unified water management strategy that accommodates
the exigencies of all concerned states. These differences also render controversies among the
states or provinces difficult both to resolve and prevent.2 Inter-state (and inter-provincial)
water agreements are frequently resorted to by states and provinces of federal countries to
address actual or also potential controversies regarding the management, development,
conservation and use of water bodies that form the boundary line between states or
provinces3, or those that straddle such boundary lines4.
Agreements facilitate the allocation and protection of water among states and provinces. They
provide security and guarantee stability among parties, thereby improving the relationship
between states. An inter-state agreement also provides principles and mechanisms of water
resources management.5 The collaboration, exchange of information, equitable and reasonable
use of water, and protection among the parties, presented in most inter-state agreements, are
the key to ensure the good husbanding of an increasingly scarce and valued natural resource.
Countries such as the United States (U.S.) resolve their inter-state water allocation conflicts
through Congressional action and adjudication by the Supreme Court, in addition to interstate
compacts.6 However, the increase of water conflicts among states requires solutions for
specific problems not anticipated in federal acts; also, agreements may leave room for
differences of interpretation. Therefore, court decisions are also an important tool in the
2 See MUYS, Jerome C., SHERK, George W., and O’LEARY, Marilyn C (2006), "Utton Transboundary
Resources Center model interstate water compact.” The Utton Center Transboundary Resources.
3 Watercourses forming the boundary between or among states are commonly referred to as "contiguous”.
4 Watercourses crossed by the boundary line between or among states are commonly referred to as
"consecutive”.
5 See MANITOBA WATER STEWARDSHIP. Transboundary Water Agreements. Available at:
http://www.gov.mb.ca/waterstewardship/water_info/transboundary/agreements.html
6 See New York v. New Jersey, 256 U.S. 296, 313 (1921). The U.S. Supreme Court established that conflicts
among states should be resolved through the compact clause of the U.S. Constitution: Article I, Section 10,
Clause 3: "No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war
in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in
war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger ase will not admit of delay.” The U.S Supreme Court
specifically says: "We cannot withhold the suggestion, inspired by the consideration of this case, that the grave
problem of sewage disposal presented by the large and growing populations living on the shores of New York
Bay is one more likely to be wisely solved by co-operative study and by conference and mutual concession on
the part of representatives of the states so vitally interested in it than by proceedings in any court however
constituted.”
3
resolution of water conflicts particularly in common law jurisdictions. The U.S. Supreme
Court, for example, has produced jurisprudence on inter-state water allocation. In India
disputes that cannot be settled by negotiation are brought before a Tribunal under the Indian
Interstate Water Dispute Act 1956. An analysis of the relevant case law, however, is outside
the remit of this paper.
This paper provides an overview of water resource agreements among states and provinces
and provides a comparative review on selected features of such agreements. It focuses on
agreements and the legal (or para-legal) instruments addressing the rivers, lakes, and
groundwater, forming the boundary line between or among states or provinces, or straddling
such boundary lines. For the purposes of this study, water allocation, water quality, river basin
management, public participation, and groundwater provisions are examined in detail. Using
these themes as a focus, the terms and arrangements contained in agreements in Argentina,
Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Nigeria, Switzerland and the United States of America
(U.S.) are drawn out, facilitating a comparative analysis and highlighting related issues and
challenges. While international water agreements are beyond the scope of this paper, the interstate
nature of agreements between U.S. states and Canadian provinces make such
instruments relevant for this analysis. Also, inter-state agreements related to flood control and
navigation have not been included in this study.
2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTER-STATE AGREEMENTS
This section contains an analysis of selected provisions which commonly feature in inter-state
or inter-province water agreements; those that contain provisions on water allocation, water
quality, river basin management and public participation are examined closely. The treatment
of groundwater in inter-state agreements is highlighted here primarily to address the degree to
which specific regulations are made with respect to this resource. Inevitably groundwater
management provisions contain regulations of aspects such as water quality and water
allocation. Finally, an overview of other elements of inter-state agreements such as
institutional arrangements and dispute resolution creates a fuller picture of what items can be
found in such agreements.
2.1 Water Quantity Control and Allocation
4
Water allocation is one of the most relevant issues that inter-state agreements face today.
Population growth and climate change affect water supply, thereby increasing the risk of
conflicts among territories. Water allocation systems focus on evaluations of water resources,
analyzing storage capacity, extractions and level of replenishment.7
Water quantity and water allocation are directly related. Most of the agreements with specific
provisions for water quantity provide mechanisms to allocate water. However, there are
agreements which address water quantity issues such as flow level of surface water bodies,
evaporation, flow variability, level of groundwater tables, but do not establish any water
allocation system. For example, the objective of the Intergovernment Agreement for the
Paroo River between New South Wales and Queensland July 20038 (Australia) is the
management of water quantity to guarantee the naturally variable flow regime, which is
fundamental to the health of the aquatic ecosystems in the Paroo River Agreement Area. In its
article 3.1(d), it states that "the water requirements for ecological processes, biodiversity and
ecologically significant areas within the Paroo River Agreement Area should be maintained,
especially by means of flow variability and seasonality.”9
Water resources can be allocated through mechanisms such as fixed amount, percentage, and
equitable apportionment. The Kansas-Nebraska-Colorado Republican River Compact, 194310
(U.S.), whose primary purpose is to provide for the most efficient use of the waters of the
Republican River Basin, serves an example of fixed amount allocation. It specifically
allocates water in acre-feet, made to each State and derived from the computed average
annual virgin water supply. Another example is the Memorandum of Agreement between
Bombay, Hyderabad, Madhya Pradesh and Madras, 195111 (India) which specifically sets the
quantity of water available to the four States party to the agreement. Moreover, the agreement
7 Water allocation has been studied from different points of view. Kilgour and Dinar analyzed stable watersharing
agreements in international river basins showing how "flexible allocation agreements are more cost
effective than those with fixed allocation schemes.” See BENNETT, LYNNE LEWIS, HOWE, CHARLES W.
AND SHOPE, JAMES (2000). The Interstate River Compact as a Water Allocation Mechanism: Efficiency
Aspects. American Journal Agriculture and Economics 82(4) 1006-1015 November. See also, KILGOUR, D.M.
AND DINAR A (1995). Are Stable Agreements for Sharing International River Waters Now Possible? Policy
Research Working Paper 1474. Washington DC: World Bank.
8 See INTERGOVERNMENT AGREEMENT FOR THE PAROO RIVER (2003), between New South Wales
and Queensland. Available at: http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/aus40700.pdf
9 See Id at Art. 2.2 and 3.1 (d)
10 See KANSAS-NEBRASKA-COLORADO REPUBLICAN RIVER COMPACT, 1943. Available at:
http://www.ksda.gov/includes/statute_regulations/interstate_water_issues/Republican_River_Compact.pdf
11 B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), Settlement of International and Inter-state water disputes in India. P.M. Bakshi ed.,
Indian Law Institute, N.M. Tripathi Bombay p. 262
5
establishes a correlation between quantity and use of water. "The allocation implied that each
State would be entitled to utilise the quantity of water allotted to it.”12 In Australia, the
Murray-Darling Basin Agreement between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria
and South Australia, June 200613 focuses on the equitable efficient management and
sustainable use of the water of the Murray-Darling Basin14, setting specific water allocations
between the upper basin states of New South Wales and Victoria, and between those states
and the lower basin state of South Australia. 15 In India, the Agreement between India,
Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan, 198116 which centres on water allocation, fixes at 17.17
MAF (million acre-feet) the "surplus” available in the Ravi-Beas river system for allocation
to the three states as fixed volumes of river water.17 It also states that "in case of any variation
in the figure of 17.17 MAF in any year, the shares shall be changed pro-rata of the above
revised allocations subject to the condition that no change shall be made in the allocation of
Jammu and Kashmir which shall remain fixed at 0.65 MAF as stipulated in the 1955
Agreement.” This is a clear example of flexibility which allows parties to modify the amount
of water allocated according to the level of flow.
Also focusing on water allocation in India, the Agreement between Punjab, Rajasthan and
Haryana, January 195518, established that the availability of water for the purpose of
allocation was based on the flow series of the rivers Ravi and Beas for the years 1921-1945.
The allocation among Punjab, Kashmir and Rajasthan is in a fixed amount for each state. This
amount would be subject to change in case of any variation in total supplies, on a pro-rata
12 B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), Settlement of International and Inter-state water disputes in India. P.M. Bakshi ed.,
Indian Law Institute, N.M. Tripathi Bombay p. 262
13 See MURRAY-DARLING BASIN AGREEMENT, (2006), between the Commonwealth New South Wales,
Victoria and South Australia.
Available at: http://www.mdbc.gov.au/__data/page/44/Murray-Darling_Basin_Agreement_full.pdf
http://www.coag.gov.au/meetings/140706/docs/mdbasin_amending_agreement.pdf
14 See Id at Article 1
15MURRAY-DARLING BASIN AGREEMENT, (2006), between the Commonwealth New South Wales,
Victoria and South Australia. Article 111 p.51 Available at:
http://www.coag.gov.au/meetings/140706/docs/mdbasin_amending_agreement.pdf
Article 111 states: "…any quantity of water allocated to one of those States and in store in any of
the upper River Murray storages or in transit in a specified part of the upper River Murray, may
be exchanged for a quantity of water allocated to the other State and in store in another of the
upper River Murray storages or in transit in another specified part of the upper River Murray, if
such an exchange of water does not prejudice the entitlement of South Australia.”
16 See B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), Settlement of International and Inter-state water disputes in India. P.M. Bakshi
ed., Indian Law Institute, N.M. Tripathi Bombay p. 297
17 See Id.
18 See B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), Settlement of International and Inter-state water disputes in India. P.M. Bakshi
ed., Indian Law Institute, N.M. Tripathi Bombay p. 281
6
basis "subject to the condition that no change be made in the allocation for Kashmir State
which shall remain as 0.65 MAF.”19
Water allocation based on percentage can be found in some U.S. compacts, such as the
Arkansas River Basin Compact (Arkansas-Oklahoma) 197020 which focuses on pollution
programs, the promotion of interstate comity, cooperation and the equitable apportionment of
the waters of the Arkansas River.21 It specifically states that "the State of Arkansas shall have
the right to develop and use of the Spavinaw Creek […] no more than fifty percent (50%). The
State of Oklahoma in the Arkansas River Subbasin no more than sixty percent (60%). The
State of Arkansas in the Lee Creek Subbasin equal to Oklahoma.”22
The principle of equitable apportionment is also utilised in inter-state water agreements,
providing generic guidance or as a precursor to specific determinations. For example, in the
U.S., the main purposes of the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa River Compact, 199723, include
promoting interstate comity, removing causes of controversies, sharing data, and equitably
apportioning the surface water.24 It states that the "allocation formula” (which may be a table,
chart, mathematical calculation or other expression allowed by the Commission25) shall be
developed for the equitable apportionment of the surface waters of the basin among the states
while protecting the ecology of the river basin.26 Another example is in India, where the
Agreement between the States of Mahaarashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh,
August 197827 regulating water allocation, adopts equitable distribution as the mechanism to
allocate water among the parties. In case of a dispute, they would have recourse to
adjudication through the Indian Interstate Water Dispute Act, 1956.
19 See Id
20ARKANSAS RIVER BASIN COMPACT BETWEEN ARKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA, (1970). Available
at: http://ssl.csg.org/compactlaws/arkansasoklahomariverbasin1970.html
21 See Id at Article 1
22 See Id at Article 4
23 ALABAMA-COOSA-TALLAPOOSA RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1997) between Alabama, Georgia and
U.S. Available at: http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju55947.000/hju55947_0f.htm
24 See Id. Article 1
25 See Id. Article 9: "The "allocation formula” means the methodology, in whatever form, by
which the Basin Commission determines and equitable apportionment of surface waters within
the Basin among the two states, such formula may be represented by a table, chart,
mathematical calculation or any other expression of the Commission’s apportionment of waters
pursuant to this compact.”
26 See Id. at Article 7.
27 See B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), Settlement of International and Inter-state water disputes in India. P.M. Bakshi
ed., Indian Law Institute, N.M. Tripathi Bombay p. 264
7
Inter-basin water transfer is another issue addressed under water allocation in some inter-state
agreements. Water transfers outside the basin "can harm the long-term economic prosperity
and quality of life of the basin of origin.”28 The harm depends on the quantity of water loss
and on development of the basin.29 In the U.S., the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin
Water Resources Compact between Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Wisconsin
and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Decembe, 200530 whose objective is "to protect,
conserve, restore, improve and effectively manage the Waters and Water Dependent Natural
Resources of the Basin.”31 It allows the transfer of water outside the Great Lakes basin only
when that diversion is regulated by the Originating Party and all water so transferred is used
solely for "Public Water Supply Purposes within the Straddling Community.”32 The
agreement also allows intra-basin transfers of water only under specific circumstances such as
when the proposed amount is less than 100,000 gallons per day average over any 90-day
period.33
Also in the U.S., the Oregon-California Goose Lake Interstate Compact34 focuses on the
development, use, conservation and control of the water resources of Goose Lake Basin. It
recognizes vested rights to the use of waters and specifically prohibits the export of water
from Goose Lake Basin for use outside the basin without the consent of both legislatures.
Another example in the U.S., the Delaware River Basin Compact 196135 ,which seeks to
manage water resources and prevent controversy among the parties, establishes that any
28 See DRAPER, STEPHEN E. (2005). Interbasin Transfer in Georgia and Basin of Origin Protection.
Proceedings of the 2005 Georgia Water Resources Conference, held April 25-27, 2005, at the University of
Georgia, Kathryn J. Hatcher, editor, Institute of Ecology, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.
29 See Id.
30 See THE GREAT LAKES-ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN WATER RESOURCES COMPACT (2005)
between Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Wisconsin and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Available at: http://www.cglg.org/projects/water/docs/12-13-05/Great_Lakes-
St_Lawrence_River_Basin_Water_Resources_Compact.pdf
31 See Id at Article 2
32 See THE GREAT LAKES-ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN WATER RESOURCES COMPACT (2005)
between Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Wisconsin and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Art.4
Section 4.9 Available at: http://www.cglg.org/projects/water/docs/12-13-05/Great_Lakes-
St_Lawrence_River_Basin_Water_Resources_Compact.pdf
33 See Id. at Section 4.9.2
34 See OREGON-CALIFORNIA GOOSE LAKE INTERSTATE COMPACT (1963). Water Code Section 5950-
5951. Article 3.
35 See DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1961) between Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New
York and U.S. Article 3.3.c Available at: http://archives.delaware.gov/collections/guide/0000s/0901-000-
002.shtml
8
transfer of water out-of-basin made by the commission would be invoked under the original
jurisdiction of the United States Supreme Court when a Party deemed itself aggrieved.36
Finally, mention should be made of the Intergovernmental Agreement on a National Water
Initiative, 199437 focusing on water management to guarantee efficiency of Australia’s water
use and to ensure the health of river and groundwater.38 Among several other features, the
agreement adopts trading of water rights as a method to allocate water, both within each state
and between the states.39 In particular, the parties agree to implement by 2007 "compatible
institutional and regulatory arrangements that facilitate intra and interstate trade, manage
differences in entitlement reliability, supply losses, supply source constraints, trading between
systems, and cap requirements.”40 The Agreement is relevant to the discussion on water
allocation in as far as the water trading provisions of the agreement apply also to the water
resources of inter-state rivers and lakes, and to inter-state groundwater. The recourse to this
unconventional and fairly controversial mechanism of water allocation intra-state is
noteworthy.
2.2 Water Quality
Water quality is another important issue which is addressed in inter-state agreements, in
isolation or, more commonly, in conjunction with other aspects of water resources
management, notably allocation. The degree of attention paid to water quality protection in
each agreement is directly related to its purpose. "Water quality management” is a broad
concept which involves matters such as prevention and abatement of pollution, coordination
and adoption of laws and regulations necessary for the protection of water resources, longterm
planning, monitoring, and strengthening and developing institutions.”41 Most inter-state
36 See Id.
37 INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT ON A NATIONAL WATER INITIATIVE (1994), between the
Commonwealth of Australia and the Government of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia,
the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.
Available at: http://www.nwc.gov.au/NWI/docs/iga_national_water_initiative.pdf
38 See Id at Preambule 5
39 See Id Article 58 "The States and Territories agree that their water market and trading
arrangements will: facilitate the operation of efficient water markets and the opportunities for
trading, within and between States and Territory, where water systems are physical shared or
hydrologic connections and water supply considerations will permit water trading.”
40 See Id Article 60
41 WATZIN, MARY C. (2006). The Role of law, science, and the public process: practical lessons from lake
Champlain (US and Canada) and Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania). 19 Pacific McGeorge Global Business
& Development Law Journal 241.
9
agreements address water quality as a "concern for ecological processes and for advancing
sustainable development of water resources.”42
The Australian Intergovernmental Agreement on a National Action Plan for Salinity and
Water Quality43 has the purpose of "establishing arrangements between governments, in
accordance with the National Action Plan on Salinity and Water Quality.”44 This agreement
"will review existing cross-jurisdictional water sharing agreements [such as the Murray-
Darling Basin]45 to ensure the consistency with this agreement”.46 Water is managed to ensure
the right to a share of the water between states. It establishes that the environmental
sustainability of shared water bodies should be protected.47 The main goals are to "prevent,
stabilise and reverse trends in salinity, particularly dryland salinity, affecting the sustainability
of production, conservation of biological diversity and the viability of infrastructure,
improving water quality and [to] secure reliable allocations for human uses industry an the
environment.”48 To achieve these goals the parties agree to integrated catchment/regional
natural resource management plans49 "incorporating [among other mechanisms] strategies and
actions […] to improve salinity and water quality, outlining strategic approaches to stimulating
changes in land and water resource management that will result in improved salinity an d
water quality outcomes, identifying cost-effective actions to address areas of high hazard.” 50
The parties in this agreement agreed "to develop standards on salinity, water quality and
associated water flows”51 within a specified period of time. The standards were designed to
42 MUMME STEPHEN P. (2006). Developing treaty compatible watershed management reforms for the U.S.-
Mexico Border: The case for strengthening the international boundary and water commission. 30 North Carolina
Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation Summer 2005 Reg. 929 section D.
43 See INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT ON A NATIONAL ACTION PLAN FOR SALINITY AND
WATER QUALITY, between the Commonwealth of Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland,
Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Northern Territory, and the Australian Capital Territory.
Available at: http://www.napswq.gov.au/publications/books/iga.html. The National Action Plan for Salinity and
Water Quality was endorsed by the Council of Australian Governments on 3 November 2000. The Plan ceased
on 30 June 2008 and has been replaced by "Caring for our country”, whose goal is to have an environment that
is healthy, better-protected, well-managed, resilient, and that provides essential ecosystem services in a
changing climate.”
44 See Id. at Article 5
45 See Id. at Ariticle 14
46 See Id. at Article 13
47 See Id. at Article 2
48 See Id. at Article 5
49 See Id. at Article 12
50 See Id. at Article 14
51 See Id. at Article 20
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achieve the purpose of this Agreement.52 Moreover, the parties agreed on the need for best
practices relating to land and water management policy.53
Also in Australia, the Murrary-Darling Basin Agreement 200654 establishes the sustainable
use of the water as one of its main purposes. 55 The parties agree to establish works or
measures for the conservation and regulation of river water, for the protection and
improvement of the quality of river water, for the conservation, protection and management
of aquatic and riverine environments; and the control and management of groundwater which
may affect the quality of river water. This agreement also establishes monitoring procedures,
measurements of water quality, environmental assessment and water quality objectives.56
These functions are assigned to the Commission who is tasked with formulating "water
quality objectives for the River Murray and mak[ing] recommendations with respect thereto
to the Ministerial Council.”57
Similarly in the U.S., the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Compact among
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont 58 identifies
a major concern: the "growth of population and the development of the territory of the New
England states has resulted in serious pollution of certain interstate streams, ponds and lakes,
and of tidal waters ebbing and flowing past the boundaries of two or more states.”59 This
agreement aims to protect interstate waters in the New England area60 and establishes water
quality standards for the waters of the Parties. The agreement stipulates that "[t]he
commission shall establish reasonable physical, chemical and bacteriological standards of
water quality satisfactory for various classifications of use.”61 Under this agreement the
commission will exercise management and control over water quality.62 Each signatory state
52 See Id.
53 See Id. at Article 25
54 MURRAY-DARLING BASIN AGREEMENT, (2006), between the Commonwealth New South Wales,
Victoria and South Australia. Available at:
http://www.coag.gov.au/meetings/140706/docs/mdbasin_amending_agreement.pdf
55 See Id at Article 1
56 See Id at Article 40, 41, 44, and 47
57 See Id . The role of inter-state and inter-province institutions in general will be addressed in section XX..
58 NEW ENGLAND INTERSTATE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMPACT (1996). Available at:
http://www.cga.ct.gov/2005/pub/Chap446g.htm
59 See Id. at preamble
60 See Id.
61 NEW ENGLAND INTERSTATE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMPACT (1996). Article 5
Available at: http://www.cga.ct.gov/2005/pub/Chap446g.htm
62 See Id. at Article 4
11
is required to classify its water based on present use and a forecast of highest use. The
agreement requires technical experts to analyze waters affecting two or more states.63
Moreover, under this agreement the commission will establish rules and regulations for water
quality management and control.64
In Canada, the Agreement between the Government of Quebec and the government of New
Brunswick on Transboundary Environmental Impact, January 200265 promotes "mutual
understanding and cooperation on transboundary environmental issues including surface and
groundwater management, [as well as] monitoring and reduction of pollution in rivers, lakes
and waterways.”66 The parties agree "to establish, in compliance with the laws, regulations
and procedures of Quebec and of New Brunswick, information exchange and joint
cooperation mechanisms.”67
Also in Canada, the Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem
June, 200768 was established "to restore, protect and conserve the Great Lakes Basin
Ecosystem in order to assist in achieving the vision of a healthy, prosperous and sustainable
Basis Ecosystem for present and future generations.”69 The agreement addresses the
restoration and protection of environmental quality and beneficial uses by "reducing
municipal wastewater and stormwater pollution, encouraging beneficial management
practices to reduce pollution, developing contaminated sediment management strategies,
restoring and protecting fish and wildlife habitats and populations, fostering community
participation, increasing knowledge through research, monitoring and reporting and
communicating progress.”70 This agreement lays down specific biological, chemical and
physical standards in order to achieve environmental restoration in the basin.71
63 NEW ENGLAND INTERSTATE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMPACT (1996). Article 5
Available at: http://www.cga.ct.gov/2005/pub/Chap446g.htm
64 See Id. at Article 4
65 AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOUVERNMENT DU QUEBEC AND THE GOVERNMENT OF NEW
BRUNSWICK TRANSBOUNDARY ENVIRONMENT IMPACT (2002),
Available at: http://www.gnb.ca/0009/0001-e.pdf
66 See Id at Article 1
67 See Id at Article 2
68 CANADA-ONTARIO AGREEMENT RESPECTING THE GREAT LAKES BASIN ECOSYSTEM (2007),
Available at: http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/
69 CANADA-ONTARIO AGREEMENT RESPECTING THE GREAT LAKES BASIN ECOSYSTEM (2007),
Available Article 2 at: http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/en/water/greatlakes/coa/index.php
70 See Id at Article 14 and Annex
71 See Id at Annex Results
12
In Switzerland, the Convention between the Cantons of Bern, Vaud, Fribourg, and Neuchatel,
February 198272 stipulates the need for cooperation to prevent water pollution resulting from
hydrocarbons and other dangerous products. It also directs the cantons to jointly develop
regulations to protect the water resources.73 The Convention also establishes specific
procedures of cooperation where pollution accidents have occurred in one of the cantons .74
Although, groundwater management is addressed in detail below, the Border Groundwaters
Agreement 1985 between State of South Australia and State of Victoria75 is relevant at this
juncture as it lays down the permissible level of salinity, ie "such level of salinity as results in
electro-conductivity not in excess of so many microsiemens per centimetre at twenty-five
degrees Celsius as may be agreed up by the Minister of each Contracting Government for any
zone pursuant to clause 28(6), or in relation to a particular one, such other level as has been
agreed upon by the Minister of each Contracting Governement under clause 28(4).”76 Periodic
reports of the salinity levels should be prepared by each contracting Government in relation to
the zones within its respective jurisdiction.77
In the U.S., the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa River Basin Compact, 199778 between Alabama,
Georgia and the U.S. with over-arching objectives that inlcude "promoting interstate comity,
removing causes of present and future controversies, equitable apportioning of water,
engaging in water planning, and developing and sharing common data bases.”79 directs in
article 17 "the continuing support of each state in active water pollution control programs.”80
Additionally, Alabama and Georgia are required to cooperate in maintaining the quality of the
waters of the River Basin.81 Similarly, the Memorandum of Understanding between Idaho
72See CONVENTION DE LUTTE CONTRE LES DÉGATS CAUSÉS PAR LES HYDROCARBURES,
FEBRUARY (1982), between the cantons of de Berne, Fribourg, Vaud and Neuchatel. Available at:
http://faolex.org/
73 See Id at article 3
74 See Id at Article 5
75 See BORDER GROUNDWATERS AGREEMENT (1985), between State of South Australia and State of
Victoria. Available at: http://faolex.fao.org/docs/texts/sa44224.doc
76 See Id at Part I
77 See Id at Article 27
78 ALABAMA-COOSA-TALLAPOOSA RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1997) between Alabama, Georgia and
U.S. Alabama Code Section 33-18-1 Available at: http://law.justia.com/alabama/codes/23586/33-18-1.html
79 See Id. at Article 1
80 Id at Article 17
81 ALABAMA-COOSA-TALLAPOOSA RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1997) between Alabama, Georgia and
U.S. Alabama Code Section 33-18-1 Article 17 "The appropriate state agencies will cooperate in the
investigation, abatement, and control of sources of alleged interstate pollution within the River Basin.”
13
Department of Environmental Quality and British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air
Protection, September 200382 establishes that its purpose is "to ensure the protection,
conservation and enhancement of our shared environment for the benefit of current and future
generations.”83 This Memorandum of Understanding sets as a main goal water quality
responsibilities and environmental monitoring programs.
The Arkansas River Basin Compact between Arkansas and Oklahoma, 197084(U.S.)
encourages "the maintenance of an active pollution abatement program in each of the two
states and […] the further reduction of both natural and man-made pollution in the waters of
the Arkansas River Basin.”85 In addition to an active pollution abatement program, the Parties
agree to investigate and prevent causes of pollution through their state agencies and to
participate in joint programs to control sources of pollution. Notably, the Agreement directs
"that neither state may require the other to provide water for the purpose of water quality
control as a substitute for adequate waste treatment.”86 This agreement recognizes the water
quality standards set out in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.87
Another example of collaboration between state agencies is in the Conejos river basin which is a tributary of the
Rio Grande. The Conejos River Basin is located between Colorado and New Mexico. The San Antonio River
and Los Pinos River are tributaries of the Conejos River. These two rivers originate in New Mexico. San
Antonio River entirely flows in the State of Mexico while the Los Pinos River, which is a main tributary, crosses
the Colorado border and flows along the State of Colorado. The impairment situation of these two watersheds
would damage the water quality in the Conejos River. The collaboration and development of projects between
states and federal agencies is the key factor in the protection of the Conejos Basin. "The Wetland Action Plan
for the Conejos Watershed” was presented by the New Mexico Environmental Department Surface Water
Quality Bureau at the Wetland Partnerships across the Colorado and New Mexico Border in Alamosa, Colorado
October 16-17, 2007. One of the issues addressed in this plan was the implementation of water quality standards
among the two states to protect and to guarantee the water uses in the basin. Agreements with landowners to
carry out projects to implement quality standards are one of the most relevant factors to protect the quality of the
Basin.
Available at: http://law.justia.com/alabama/codes/23586/33-18-1.html
82 MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN IDAHO DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL
QUALITY AND BRITISH COLUMBIA MINISTRY OF WATER, LAND AND AIR PROTECTION,
September 2003. Available at: http://www.deq.state.id.us/rules/mous/all_bc_idaho_2004_285_286_287.pdf
83 MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN IDAHO DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL
QUALITY AND BRITISH COLUMBIA MINISTRY OF WATER, LAND AND AIR PROTECTION,
September 2003. Article 1 Available at:
http://www.deq.state.id.us/rules/mous/all_bc_idaho_2004_285_286_287.pdf
84 See ARKANSAS RIVER BASIN COMPACT BETWEEN ARKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA, (1970).
Available at: http://ssl.csg.org/compactlaws/arkansasoklahomariverbasin1970.html
85 See Id. at Article 1
86 See Id. at Article 7
87 See Id.
14
In Germany, the Agreement on the respective areas of responsibility of the river police on the
Elbe, January 197488 between the Länder Niedersachsen and Schleswig-Holstein provides for
law enforcement arrangements. In particular, the Länder Niedersachsen and Schleswig-
Holstein agreed on the transfer of river policing responsibilities for the Elbe River to the
Lander Hamburg. This is a rather uncommon agreement in that it addresses the delicate, yet
critical, function of law enforcement in specific relation to the management of an inter-state
river. The Water Charter for Sustainable and Equitable Management of the Hadejia-
Jama’are-Komadugu-Yobe Basin made by the Nigerian states of Bauchi, Borno, Jigawa,
Kano, Plateau, and Yobe, and by the Federal Government of Nigeria, elevates the ‘polluter
pays’ principle from the level of domestic regulation to the level of inter-state relations, which
ensures the costs of pollution prevention, control and reduction measures are borne by the
polluter.89
2.3 River Basin Management
A river (or lake) basin approach to addressing the management and development of inter-state
or inter-province water resources can be a distinctive feature of agreements. For example, the
Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem, 200790 defines the
term ‘basin’ as "the five Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, to the Ontario and Quebec
border, and includes the lands and surrounding waters which drain into them.”91 The
agreement addresses basin management by setting "common priorities, goals, and results for
the restoration, protection and conservation of the Basin Ecosystem.”92 Article 3(1)(f) of this
Agreement defines ‘ecosystem approach’ as "making decisions that recognize the
interdependence of land air, water and living organisms, including humans, and seeking to
maximize benefits to the entire Basin Ecosystem.”93 In the Arkansas River Basin Compact
between Arkansas and Oklahoma, 197094 (U.S.) the term ‘basin’ refers to the specific portion
of the river between Arkansas and Oklahoma. The "Arkansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River
88 AGREEMENT ON THE RESPECTIVE AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY OF THE RIVER POLICE ON THE
ELBE (1974) between Hamburg, Niedersachsen, and Schleswig-Holstein. Available at: http://faolex.fao.org/
89 See WATER CHARTER, Article 14
90 See CANADA-ONTARIO AGREEMENT RESPECTING THE GREAT LAKES BASIN ECOSYSTEM
(2007). Available at: http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/coa/
91 See Id at Article 1
92 See Id at Article 2.3.d
93 See CANADA-ONTARIO AGREEMENT RESPECTING THE GREAT LAKES BASIN ECOSYSTEM
(2007). Article 3.1.f Available at: http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/coa/
94 See ARKANSAS RIVER BASIN COMPACT BETWEEN ARKANSAS AND OKLAHOMA, (1970).
Available at: http://ssl.csg.org/compactlaws/arkansasoklahomariverbasin1970.html
15
Basin” explicitly excludes certain areas such as the portion of the drainage basin of the
Canadian River below Eufaula Dam.95 Under this arrangement, each Party "may construct,
own and operate for its needs water storage reservoirs in the other state, [as well as] have the
free and unrestricted right to utilize the natural channel of any stream within the Arkansas
River Basin for conveyance through the other state.”96 The agreement also establishes the
Arkansas-Oklahoma Arkansas River Compact Commission which among its duties shall
"establish, maintain and operate such stream, reservoir or other gauging stations as may be
necessary for the proper administration of this Compact.”97
The Delaware River Basin Compact 196198 between Delaware, New Jersey, New York,
Pennsylvania and the U.S. for the "conservation, utilization, development, management, and
control of the water and related resources of the Delaware River Basin”99 defines ‘basin’ as
"the area of drainage into the Delaware River and its tributaries, including Delaware Bay.”
The mandate of the Commission created to administer the terms of the agreement
encompasses "watershed management in the basin, including projects and facilities to retard
runoff and waterflow, promot[ing] forestry practices, prevent[ing] soil erosion and facilities
for the improvement of fish and wildlife habitats related to the water resources of the
basin.”100
Argentina’s Federal Water Agreement between the Nation, the Provinces, and the
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 2003101 provides for a river basin approach for the
management of inter-provincial waters that is inclusive of different activities in a basin which
can affect water quality, aquatic ecosystems and water uses, in particular, land use.102. The
agreement provides that each province is responsible for the management of water resources
located in its territory, and that it should collaborate with other Provinces when the water
95 See Id at Article 2.C. which sets: "The term "Arkansas River Basin” means all the drainage basin of the
Arkansas River and its tributaries from a point immediately below the confluence of the Grand-Neosho River
with the Arkansas River near Muskogee, Oklahoma, to a point immediately below the confluence of Lee Creek
with the Arkansas River near Van Buren, Arkansas, together with the drainage basin of Spavinaw Creek in
Arkansas, but excluding that portion of the drainage basin of the Canadian River below Eufaula Dam.”
96 See Id at Article 6
97 See Id at Article 5.B
98 See DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1961) between Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New
York and U.S. Available at: http://archives.delaware.gov/collections/guide/0000s/0901-000-002.shtml
99 See Id at Part I
100 See Id. at Article 7
101 See ACUERDO FEDERAL DEL AGUA (2003), between la Nación, Las Provincias y de la Ciudad
Autónoma de Buenos Aires.
Available at: http://www.lapampa.gov.ar/Publicaciones/BolOficial/Bof2004/bof2600a.htm
102 See Id. at Article 5
16
resources are "shared” (i.e., inter-provincial).103 "Basin organizations” are mandated to
coordinate and manage such water resources for the entire basin. To this end, these
organizations are to cooperate with the water authority of the relevant Provinces in charge of
water resources planning.104 The Agreement also requires the implementation of sustainable
practices to protect the water resources of each basin, including inter-provincial basins. This
coordination between different levels of government and the decentralization of the river
basin management provide a framework to allow the participation of "community
organizations” in the management of the basin.105 Public participation is an important aspect
in the management of inter-state and inter-province water resources and is addressed below.
2.4 Public Participation
Public participation is a recurrent feature of most agreements on inter-state and inter-province
water resources. The input of the public in the decision-making process ensures support for
water management decisions from both sides of the inter-state or inter-province border, and
ultimately, to improving the quality of governmental decision-making.
In the U.S., the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa River Basin Compact 1997106 between Alabama,
Georgia and the U.S. establishes that "all meetings of the Commission (created by the
compact) shall be open to the public.”107 This provision clearly allows individuals and groups
to participate in the basin’s management. In Australia, the Lake Eyre Basin Intergovernmental
Agreement 2000108 between the Commonwealth, the State of Queensland and the State of
South Australia seeks to develop policies and strategies to avoid adverse cross-border impacts
in the Lake Eyre Basin.109 This agreement requires the Ministerial Forum to ensure
"satisfactory access to community advice in relation to matters relevant to the Agreement.”110
It also requires there to be appropriate representation of different social and economic groups
103 See Id at Article 16
104 See Id. at Article 24 and 25
105 See Id. at Article 16
Another example which would be mentioned in this study is the case of Spain and the water management
106 ALABAMA-COOSA-TALLAPOOSA RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1997) between Alabama, Georgia and
U.S. Available at:
107 See Id. at Article 6 (f).
108 LAKE EYRE BASIN INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT (2000), between the Commonwealth, State
of Queensland and State of South Australia. Available at: http://faolex.fao.org/docs/texts/aus25173.doc
109 See Id at 2.1
110 See Id at 5.9
17
such as: aboriginal, pastoral, agricultural mining and petroleum, conservation, and tourism.111
The twin goals of this social representation are to elucidate the respective interests of each
sector – "the seeking out of community views relevant to matters covered by this Agreement
and the communication of those views to the Ministerial Forum”112 and also the
communication of decisions and initiatives by the Ministerial Forum to the representative
groups.113
Similarly, public participation in the decision-making process features prominently in
Nigeria’s Water Charter for Sustainable and Equitable Management of the Hadejia-
Jama’are-Komadugu-Yobe Basin114, which provides that each basin state shall "ensure that
the public, and in particular those communities living within the River Basin shall participate
at the appropriate level, including participation in the procedure for assessing the
environmental impacts of projects.”115 Moreover, it allows for the submission of oral or
written representations before a final decision.116
The Memorandum of Understanding between the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality
and the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, September 2003117,
geared towards the identification, coordination and promotion of mutual efforts for water
conservation also promotes sharing of information and communications among different
members on issues with cross-border impacts. It mandates in article 3 "processes for public
review and comment”118 implying public participation and the ability to communicate
concerns or views.
The Great Lake-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact between Illinois,
Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio and Wisconsin and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,
December 2005119 establishes specific provisions for public participation. It directs the
111 See Id at 5.11
112 See Id at 5.11.2 (b)
113 See Id at 5.11.2
114 Made by the states of Bauchi, Borno, Jigawa, Kano, Plateau, and Yobe, and by the Federal Government
115 See Id. at Article 12. a
116 See Id. at Article 12. b
117 MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN IDAHO DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL
QUALITY AND BRITISH COLUMBIA MINISTRY OF WATER, LAND AND AIR PROTECTION,
SEPTEMBER (2003). Available at: http://www.deq.state.id.us/rules/mous/all_bc_idaho_2004_285_286_287.pdf
118See Id at Article 3
119 See GREAT LAKES-ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN WATER RESOURCES COMPACT DECEMBER
13th, (2005) between Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, Wisconsin and the Commonwealth of
18
Regional Body, which is composed by the members of the Council and the Premiers of
Ontario and Québec120, to provide notice to the public of a proposal undergoing Regional
Review. The notice should indicate that the public has an opportunity to comment in writing
to the Regional Body. Moreover, in order to receive public comment on the issue, the
Regional Body shall hold public meetings in the State or Province of the Originating Party.
The comments are to be analyzed and forwarded by the Regional Body to the Originating
Party.121
The U.S., The Susquehanna River Basin Compact May 1972122, between Pennsylvania,
Maryland, New York, and the U.S. contains various clauses promoting public participation.
"All meetings of the commission shall be open to public;”123 moreover, public hearings
should be conducted by the Commission each state prior to the adoption of the initial
comprehensive plan. Where a hearing is required, it "shall be held upon not less than twenty
days’ public notice given by posting at the offices of the commission, and published at least
once in a newspaper or newspaper of general circulation in the area or areas affected.”124 The
minutes of the commission are to be made accessible to the public.125
Also, the California-Nevada Intestate Compact, 1990126 (U.S.) providing a framework for
water resource control and protection, and guaranteeing equitable apportionment between the
states mandates public hearings for plans relating to reservoirs. The owners of reservoirs are
afforded the opportunity of participating in the preparation, review, or revision of such plans.
2.5 Groundwater
Groundwater rarely is the sole target of inter-state or inter-province agreements. One example
to the contrary is the Idaho-Washington Interagency Agreement in the Matter of the
Pennsylvania. Available at: http://www.cglg.org/projects/water/docs/12-13-05/Great_Lakes-
St_Lawrence_River_Basin_Water_Resources_Compact.pdf
120 See Id at Article 1
121 See Id at Article 3
122 See SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1972) between Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York, and
U.S. Available at: http://www.srbc.net/about/srbc_compact.pdf
123 See Id at Article 15.4 a
124 See Id at Article 15.4 b
125 See Id at Article 15.4 c
126 See CALIFORNIA-NEVADA INTERSTATE COMPACT (1990). Water Code Section 5975-5976
19
Coordinated Management of the Pullman-Moscow Ground Water Aquifer, April 1992127
(U.S.). Concerns for the Pullman Moscow Groundwater Aquifer resulting from continued
declines in ground water levels, led to the establishment of the Pullman Moscow Water
Resources Committee.128 The agreement adopted a coordinated management strategy to
develop action plans and to improve general management of the Pullman Moscow aquifer.129
The Border Groundwater Agreement, 1985 between State of South Australia and State of
Victoria130 is another which focuses exclusively on groundwater resources adjacent to the
border of the two Australian states. This agreement also provides for the cooperation,
management, and equitable sharing of groundwater, and for safeguarding against undue
depletion or degradation of the groundwater resources.131 It addresses two important issues:
"permissible annual volume” which refers to the annual volume of extraction specified for
each zone, and "permissible level of salinity”. It also makes reference to the "permissible rate
of potentiometric surface lowering” which means an average annual rate of potentiometric
surface lowering of 0.05 meters.132
More often, groundwater is dealt with alongside surface waters, as demonstrated by the
Delaware River Basin Compact 1961133 between Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York and the
U.S., one of its main purposes being "the regulation of flows and supplies of surface and
ground waters of the basin”134. This agreement manages surface and groundwater for the
protection of public health, improvement of fisheries, recreation, stream quality control,
prevention of salinity, and control of pollution.135 In similar fashion, the Great Lakes-St.
Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Compact, December 2005136 for the
protection, conservation and restoration of the waters of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River
127 IDAHO-WASHINGTON INTERAGENCY AGREEMENT IN THE MATTER OF THE COODINATED
MANAGEMENT OF THE PULLMAN-MOSCOW GROUND WATER AQUIFER, April 1992.
Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/y5739e/y5739e0b.htm
128 See Id
129 See Id
130 BORDER GROUNDWATER AGREEMENT, 1985 between State of South Australia and State of Victoria.
Available at: http://faolex.fao.org/docs/html/vic1684.htm
131 See Id at Preambule
132 See Id at Part I and Part IV. 27
133 DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1961) between Pennsulvania, Maryland, New York and the U.S.
Available at: http://archives.delaware.gov/collections/guide/0000s/0901-000-002.shtml
134 DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1961) between Pennsulvania, Maryland, New York and the U.S.
Article 4 Available at: http://archives.delaware.gov/collections/guide/0000s/0901-000-002.shtml
135 See Id.
136 See THE GREAT LAKES-ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES
AGREEMENT (2005) between States of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio,
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, the Province of Ontario and the Government of Québec. Article
207.5 Available at: http://www.cglg.org/
20
Basin,137 stipulates that "waters of the Basin or Basin Water means the Great Lakes and all
streams, rivers, lakes, connecting channels and other bodies of water, including tributary
groundwater, within the Basin.” (emphasis added)138 Notably, this agreement lays down limits
to groundwater withdrawals.139 Insofar as groundwater is addressed alongside surface water
resources, these two agreements reflect an integrated approach to the management of interstate
water resources. This approach takes on different connotations in other agreements, in
response to greater awareness of the inter-connectedness of groundwater and surface water
systems, and its effect on the interests of the parties. These interests may relate to the
allocation of water quantities, as the California-Nevada Interstate Compact, 1990140
demonstrates through the special attention given to the impact of groundwater and
springwater withdrawals on allocated surface waters. In particular, this compact provides that
"that development and use of ground water in one state shall not reduce the amount of water
of the other state.”141 It establishes that "wells or other methods of collecting groundwater
water [should] assure that water will not be drawn directly from allocated surface water.”142 In
default, the Compact establishes that "wells drilled within 500 feet from any perennial
streams which are not sealed from the surface to a depth of at least 50 feet shall be deemed
prima facie to draw directly from allocated surface water.”143 In general, groundwater
management and its allocation fall within the remit of the bi-lateral Commission created to
administer the compact.144
The link between groundwater and surface water is also reflected in the Murray-Darling
Basin Agreement 2006145 between the Commonwealth of Australia, New South Wales,
Victoria and South Australia where article 39 (d) directs Parties to control and manage
137 See Id at Chapter 1 Article 100
138 See THE GREAT LAKES-ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES
AGREEMENT (2005) between States of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio,
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, the Province of Ontario and the Government of Québec. Available
at: http://www.cglg.org/
139 THE GREAT LAKES-ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES
AGREEMENT (2005) between States of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio,
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, the Province of Ontario and the Government of Québec. Available
at: http://www.cglg.org/ Article 207
140 CALIFORNIA-NEVADA INTERSTATE COMPACT, 1990. Water Code Section 5975-5976
141 CALIFORNIA-NEVADA INTERSTATE COMPACT, 1990. Water Code Section 5975-5976 Art. 9.1
142 See Id at Article 9.2
143 CALIFORNIA-NEVADA INTERSTATE COMPACT, 1990. Water Code Section 5975-5976 Art. 9.2
144 See id
145MURRAY-DARLING BASIN AGREEMENT, (2006).
Available at: http://www.mdbc.gov.au/__data/page/44/Murray-Darling_Basin_Agreement_full.pdf
21
groundwater which may affect the quality or quantity of river water.146 Also in Australia,
under the Lake Eyre Basin Intergovernmental Agreement between the Commonwealth and the
states of Queensland and South Australia, 2001, the parties have agreed to, inter alia, the
principle of integrated management of water resources in the Lake catchments including, in
particular, treatment of the storage and use of surface water and associated groundwater as a
whole. The principles and objectives of the Agreement will translate into policies and
strategies to be developed and agreed by the Parties. These may include water quality and
river flow objectives for the Basin watercourse; management objectives for water and related
natural resources management; catchment management strategies, instrumental to achieving
the agreed water quality and river flow objectives; and policies to deal with existing water
entitlements under state law. 147
Other agreements seem to go further in the direction of the conjunctive use of groundwater
and surface water. In Australia, the Intergovernmental Agreement on a National Water
Initiative, 1994148 between the Commonwealth of Australia and the Governments of New
South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory and the
Northern Territory sets out as a purpose, the regulation of groundwater resources connected
with surface water "managing surface and groundwater resources for rural and urban use.”149
This agreement manages water resources to ensure the right to a share of the water between
states.150 Other objectives identified in the Agreement are securing water access entitlements,
improving environmental and other public benefit outcomes, managing environmentallysustainable
levels of extraction and recognising "the connectivity between surface and
groundwater resources and connected systems managed as a single resource.”151
146 See Id at Article 39
147 LAKE EYRE BASIN INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT, sections 3.1, 8.4. Available at:
http://faolex.fao.org/docs/texts/aus25173.doc
148 INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT ON A NATIONAL WATER INITIATIVE (1994), between the
Commonwealth of Australia and the Government of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia,
the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.
Available at: http://www.nwc.gov.au/NWI/docs/iga_national_water_initiative.pdf
149 INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT ON A NATIONAL WATER INITIATIVE (1994), between the
Commonwealth of Australia and the Government of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia,
the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. Objectives Article 23 p.3
Available at: http://www.nwc.gov.au/NWI/docs/iga_national_water_initiative.pdf
150 See Id. at Article 2
151 See Id. at Article 23
22
Similarly, Argentina’s Federal Water Agreement between the Nation, the Provinces, and the
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires,, 2003152 mandates collaboration among provinces that
share any water resource.153 Article 2 states that surface and groundwater are connected and
should be used and protected as one source. It recognizes the hydrologic system as one where
all water sources are in connection and that the pollution and withdrawal of one source will
affect another.
2.6 Overview of other common features in inter-state water agreements
This sub-section highlights other aspects of inter-state water agreements that are frequently
included in these agreements in order to create a more comprehensive representation of what
can be found in such agreements.
2.6.1 Federal Role
A distinct role for the federal government is present in many inter-state agreements. This is
evidenced through provisions on federal funding of water projects or more commonly through
the facilitation of inter-state or inter-province cooperation. The latter role is aptly illustrated
by the cooperation arrangements created progressively since the mid-1950’s by the Argentine
Provinces sharing the Colorado and the Atuel river systems, which see an increasingly
prominent profile assumed by the federal government. Although earlier cooperation
arrangements had excluded the federal government, it became a member of the Colorado
River Inter-provincial Committee (known as COIRCO) through the 1976 agreement among
the concerned Provinces, to which it was a party.154 In this capacity, the federal government
subsequently helped broker further inter-provincial agreements regarding the two river
systems.155
152 ACUERDO FEDERAL DEL AGUA (2003), between la Nación, Las Provincias y de la Ciudad Autónoma
de Buenos Aires. Available at: http://www.lapampa.gov.ar/Publicaciones/BolOficial/Bof2004/bof2600a.htm
153 See Id at Article 16
154 Agreement of 26 October 1976 between the Provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Mendoza, Neuquén and
Rio Negro (in M. Valls, (COMPLETE)
155 The latest such agreement was made on 7 August 2008, whereby the federal government and the Provinces
of Mendoza and La Pampa agreed to carry out water conservation works mainly in the upstream part of the Atuel
River, in Mendoza Province, for distribution of the augmented river flows to both Provinces, in equal halves
(text of the agreement on file with the author).
23
The federal government is given a pro-active role in the Master Agreement on Apportionment,
1969156 between Canada, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, which allocates water and
manages water quality among the parties.157 In article 7, the federal government is required to
compile and publish water quality and quantity data necessary for the implementation and
maintenance of the provisions of the agreement. Similarly, in Argentina, article 27 of the
Federal Water Agreement between the Nation, the Provinces, and the Autonomous City of
Buenos Aires,158 sets out the duty of the federal government to develop an integrated approach
to the management of the nation’s water resources, including in particular those of an interprovincial
nature.
The federal government may also take on an explicit role of overseer of the national interests.
Under the Water Charter for Sustainable and Equitable Management of the Hadejia-
Jama’are-Komadugu-Yobe Basin159 (Nigeria), the federal government is to safeguard and
accommodate matters of national interest. Further, it is tasked with monitoring "the activities
of the states throughout the Basin to ensure Nigeria meets its international obligations [such
as] the Nigeria-Niger Joint Commission Agreement as well as Lake Chad Basin Convention,
and the Ramsar Convention.”160
Finally, the federal government may also take on the role of arbitrator of inter-state disputes
as demonstrated by the Agreement between India, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan, 1981161
(India), which declares that where there is dispute over water allocation, the parties will refer
to the Government of India if the parties can not arrive at an agreement.162
2.6.2 Management institutions
156 See MASTER AGREEMENT ON APPORTIONMENT (1969), between Canada, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and
Manitoba. Article 7 Available at: http://www.mb.ec.gc.ca/water/fb01/fb00s04.en.html
157 See Id. at Articles 6 and 7
158 See ACUERDO FEDERAL DEL AGUA (2003), between la Nación, Las Provincias y de la Ciudad
Autónoma de Buenos Aires.
Available at: http://www.lapampa.gov.ar/Publicaciones/BolOficial/Bof2004/bof2600a.htm
159 See WATER CHARTER FOR SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE MANAGEMENT OF THE HADEJAJAMA’ARE-
KOMADUGU-YOBE BASIN
160 See Id at Article 6
161 See B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), Settlement of International and Inter-state water disputes in India. P.M. Bakshi
ed., Indian Law Institute, N.M. Tripathi Bombay p. 297
162 See Id.
24
Most of the inter-state agreements analyzed have a management body to administer the
agreement; the functions, internal organization and membership of such entities vary from
agreement to agreement.
In Australia, the Murray-Darlin Basin Agreement between the Commonwealth, New South
Wales, Victoria and South Australia163 establishes a Commission whose membership
comprises inter alia representatives of water, land and environmental resource management
and a separate Ministerial Council, with three representatives from each contracting state. The
Commission’s roles include providing advice to the Ministerial Council and assisting the
latter’s functions for the equitable, efficient and sustainable use of water; co-ordinating the
implementation of measures; and giving effect to policy and management decisions of the
Council.164
The Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem, 2007165
creates a Management Committee with broad representation that is responsible for: setting
priorities; making annual assessments of the administration and implementation of the
agreement; facilitating the free exchange of information; addressing the implications of
changes or adjustments to government policy; overseeing the development and amendment of
Annexes as necessary; overseeing the delivery of other communications; cooperation with
Great Lakes community; and joint planning between Canada and the U.S.166
In Argentina, the Federal Water Agreement between the Nation, the Provinces, and the
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 2003167 provides for a Federal Water Committee to oversee
the implementation of basic hydrologic principles in Argentina.168 In particular, the
Committee will address inter-provincial water-related issues and devise strategies to
guarantee the sustainable development of the water resources in Argentina. In India, the
163 MURRAY-DARLING BASIN AGREEMENT, (2006), between the Commonwealth, New South Wales,
Victoria and South Australia. Art. 17
Available at: http://www.coag.gov.au/meetings/140706/docs/mdbasin_amending_agreement.pdf
164 See Id.
165 CANADA-ONTARIO AGREEMENT RESPECTING THE GREAT LAKES BASIN ECOSYSTEM (2007),
Available at: http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/coa/
166 See Id at Article 6
167 ACUERDO FEDERAL DEL AGUA (2003), available at:
http://www.lapampa.gov.ar/Publicaciones/BolOficial/Bof2004/bof2600a.htm
168 ACUERDO FEDERAL DEL AGUA (2003), Article 30. Available at:
http://www.lapampa.gov.ar/Publicaciones/BolOficial/Bof2004/bof2600a.htm
25
Agreement between India, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan, 1981169 established the Bhakra
and Beas Management Board which "shall be permitted to take all necessary measures for
carrying out measurements and for ensuring delivery of supplies to all the concerned States in
accordance with their entitlements such as rating the gauge discharge curves, installation of
self-recording gauges, taking observations without any hindrance of the discharge
measurements.”170
2.6.3 Monitoring Programs
Monitoring of water quality and quantity conditions in inter-state and inter-province rivers,
lakes, and groundwater reserves plays an important role in the management of inter-state
water resources. As a result, monitoring provisions and programmes are a frequent feature of
inter-state and inter-province agreements.
The Master Agreement on Apportionment, 1969171 between the Governments of Canada,
Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Schedule E, Agreement on Water Quality) requires an
annual written report from the Board to the parties to implement water quality standards.
Also, additional reports or information should be provided as requested by all of the parties to
this Agreement.172 The Lake Eyre Basin Intergovernmental Agreement, 2000173 between the
Commonwealth of Australia, the State of Queensland and the State of South Australia, sets
among its objectives the promotion of research and monitoring programs to improve
understanding and support informed decision-making in the areas covered by the
agreement.174 Also in Australia, the New South Wales-Queensland and Border Rivers
Agreement, 1946175 which focuses on water conservation, water supply and irrigation,
169 See B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), Settlement of International and Inter-state water disputes in India. P.M. Bakshi
ed., Indian Law Institute, N.M. Tripathi Bombay p. 297
170 See B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), Settlement of International and Inter-state water disputes in India. P.M. Bakshi
ed., Indian Law Institute, N.M. Tripathi Bombay p. 297
171 See MASTER AGREEMENT ON APPORTIONMENT (1969), between the Governments of Canada,
Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Available at: http://www.mb.ec.gc.ca/water/fb01/fb00s04.en.html
172 See Id at Article 8
173 See LAKE EYRE BASIN INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT (2000) between the Commonwealth
of Australia, the State of Queensland and the State of South Australia.
Available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/water/publications/environmental/rivers/lake-eyre/agreement.html
174 See LAKE EYRE BASIN INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT (2000) between the Commonwealth of
Australia, the State of Queensland and the State of South Australia. Article 2.2
Available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/water/publications/environmental/rivers/lake-eyre/agreement.html
175 See NEW SOUTH WALES-QUEENSLAND AND BORDER RIVERS AGREEMENT (1946), between
New South Wales, and Queensland.
Available at: http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/CURRENT/N/NewSoWQBorRiA46.pdf
26
mandates the inter-state Commission created under the agreement to implement an effective
system of making and recording continuous gaugings for water monitoring purposes.176
Finally, in the U.S., the Idaho-Washington Interagency Agreement in the Matter of the
Coordinated Management of the Pullman-Moscow Ground Water Aquifer April 1992177
established a computer-simulated modelling study to detect declines in ground water level.178
2.6.7 Dispute Resolution
Dispute resolution refers to the specific mechanisms, procedures, institutions and guidelines
established in an inter-state agreement to solve conflicts between the signatories. The
mechanisms and procedures to solve disputes vary from agreement to agreement. Some
agreements set as a goal: "removing the causes of present and future controversies,” without
including formal dispute-resolution mechanisms.179
The Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa River Basin Compact between Alabama, Georgia, and the
U.S.180 has developed specific procedures to resolve conflicts and thus provides security to the
parties.181 A notice of claim it to be filed with the commission established pursuant to the
compact. The notice shall provide a written statement which enumerates the salient aspects of
176 See Id at Article 14
177 See IDAHO-WASHINGTON INTERAGENCY AGREEMENT IN THE MATTER OF THE
COODINATED MANAGEMENT OF THE PULLMAN-MOSCOW GROUND WATER AQUIFER, April
1992.
Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/y5739e/y5739e0b.htm
178 See IDAHO-WASHINGTON INTERAGENCY AGREEMENT IN THE MATTER OF THE
COODINATED MANAGEMENT OF THE PULLMAN-MOSCOW GROUND WATER AQUIFER, April
1992. Preamble
Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/y5739e/y5739e0b.htm
179 See HANSEN, Karen M (2006). "The evolution of interstate water disputes into regional cooperative
management regimes: Launching a new model compact for interstate water issues.” Eastern Water Law & Policy
Reporter, May.
180 See ALABAMA-COOSA-TALLAPOOSA RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1997) between Alabama, Georgia
and U.S. Available at: http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju55947.000/hju55947_0f.htm
181 See Id at Article 13, which sets: "In the event of a dispute between the voting members of this compact
involving a claim relating to compliance with the allocation formula adopted by the commission under this
compact, the following procedures shall govern: (1) Notice of claim shall be filed with the commission by a
voting member of this compact and served upon each member of the commission. The notice shall provide a
written statement of the claim, including a brief narrative of the relevant matters supporting the claimant’s
position. (2) Within twenty (20) days of the commission’s receipt of a written statement of a claim, the party or
parties to the compact against whom the complaint is made may prepare a brief narrative of the relevant matters
and file it with the commission and serve it upon each member of the commission (…)”
27
the dispute, to which the responding party has twenty days to submit a response. A brief of
the relevant matters will be presented to the commission which will address each case.
In contrast, the Murray-Darling Basin Agreement, 2006182 between the Commonwealth,
New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia provides loose guidance to deal with
conflict situations. If a dispute arises arising from the transfer of water entitlements and
allocations "the parties must seek, in good faith, to resolve the dispute expeditiously by
negotiations between them.”183
India has had a long history of inter-state water disputes. Under the Interstate Water
Dispute Act, 1959 negotiation and eventual agreement are the preferred avenue to
conflict resolution. The Act however stipulates that disputes that cannot be settled by
negotiation will be brought before a Tribunal.184 The Memorandum of Agreement of
December, 1975185, among the Indian states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya
Pradesh, Orissa, and Karnataka concerning the partial allocation of the waters of the
River Godavari and its tributaries, illustrates the use of an agreement to settle conflicts.
This agreement primarily concerns water allocation and establishes specific amounts of
water for each of the parties as a final dispute resolution measure.
2.6.8 Duration
Inter-state agreements can be subject to a term of duration which varies considerably. In the
U.S., the Susquehanna River Basin Compact between Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
Rhode Island, Vermont, and the U.S., 1972186 is valid "for an initial period of 100 years […],
and it shall be continued for additional periods of 100 years.” The Canada-Ontario
182 See See MURRAY-DARLING BASIN AGREEMENT, (2006), between the Commonwealth, New South
Wales, Victoria and South Australia. Schedule E Transferring Water Entitlements and Allocations. Available at:
http://www.coag.gov.au/meetings/140706/docs/mdbasin_amending_agreement.pdf
183 See Id Article 19
184 This is the case with the Agreement between the States of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra
Pradesh, August 1978184, the Agreement concluded by Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and
Rajasthan and Advisor to the Governor of Gujarat July, 1974184, and the Memorandum of Agreement of 1951
between Bombay, Hyderabad, Madhya Pradesh and Madras184.
185 See B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), Settlement of International and Inter-state water disputes in India. P.M. Bakshi
ed., Indian Law Institute, N.M. Tripathi Bombay p. 263
186 See SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1972) between Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
Rhode Island, Vermont and U.S. Available at: http://www.srbc.net/about/srbc_compact.pdf
28
Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem, 2007187 ties the length of the
agreement to the time to achieve the agreement’s goals, i.e by 2011.
3. CONCLUSIONS
This paper has canvassed what should constitute a representative sample of the numerous
agreements and legally binding arrangements made in recent decades by member states and
provinces of federal jurisdictions. Occasionally, non-binding instruments have also been
reviewed. The wide-ranging scope of the agreements under discussion attests to their utility in
addressing the numerous exigencies of State parties, and to accommodate their respective
interests to mutual satisfaction. The flexible and malleable nature of agreements to reflect the
needs of the parties render them a preferable option to arbitration or eventual adjudication of
inter-state and inter-province interests by the highest federal courts. At this stage the positions
of the parties have generally hardened into formal disputes and the room for manoeuvre has
narrowed. Herein lies a distinctive trait of treaty-making among member states and provinces
of federal jurisdictions as compared to treaties between sovereign states operating in an
international context. Recourse to adjudication is not available on fully comparable terms in
the international context,188 and may act as an incentive or as a disincentive to treaty-making
in a federal context. India’s highly litigious record may provide an illustration of the latter
possible scenario, with inter-state negotiations almost always breaking down on the
conviction that the courts would succeed where negotiators have failed. Another distinctive
trait, as demonstrated by this paper, is the facilitating role played by federal governments
which has only a distant parallel in the role which international lending and technical
assistance institutions may discharge in transboundary (or "shared”) water resources
agreements.189
187 See CANADA-ONTARIO AGREEMENT RESPECTING THE GREAT LAKES BASIN ECOSYSTEM
(2007), Available at: http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/coa/
188 Disputes between sovereign states can be referred for adjudication to the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
However, the prior agreement of the parties to the dispute to seek adjudication by the Court is a pre-requisite for
the Court to be seized of, and to rule on, a dispute. This is not a pre-requisite in most federal jurisdictions.
189 The World Bank was directly instrumental in brokering the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan
(1960). The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has, since the 1950’s, nudged cooperation among
Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam on the Mekong River. It also helped set the stage for cooperation among
the Senegal River Basin states of Mali, Mauritania, and Senegal, eventually resulting in the Organisation pour la
mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal (OMVS) (1972). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
(FAO) facilitated agreement among Algeria, Libya and Tunisia on arrangements for cooperation in the
management of the non-renewable North-Western Sahara Aquifer, shared by those countries (2007). Unlike the
federal government in inter-state and inter-province agreements, however, international financial and technical
assistance institutions are not a party to the agreements and arrangements above-mentioned made by sovereign
29
In view of the enormous variety in the scope and level of detail of agreements, conclusions
can be drawn only at a high level of generalization. Allocation of available river flows,
exceptionally through inter-basin transfer, and prevention and abatement of pollution of
surface waters and of groundwater rank most prominently among the concerns prompting
agreement. Allocation mechanisms range from the aspirational goals notably, the principle
of equitable apportionment and of reasonable use to the precise apportionment water
quantities and river flows by fixed amounts, by percentages or by complex mathematical
formulae. Pollution prevention and abatement of inter-state and inter-province water
resources tend to be consistently approached via joint monitoring and data exchange
obligations, and generic or specific pollution control programme obligations (including, in
particular, the articulation and implementation of water quality standards). Opportunities for
public participation in governmental decision-making on both sides of an inter-state or interprovince
border is a recurrent feature of much contemporary treaty-making in federal
jurisdictions. Groundwater is attracting growing attention, particularly in situations of limited
availability of surface water resources, and of actual or potential contamination. Inter-state
and inter-province groundwater-specific agreements are still a clear minority, with a majority
canvassing groundwater alongside surface water, as a reflection of the inter-connectedness of
the hydrologic cycle and in pursuit of integrated water resources management goals, if only
by implication. Integration goals are also implied in the agreements covering an entire river
or lake basin, or groundwater aquifer , or parts of it. Clearly, several among the agreements
reviewed in this paper subscribe to a river or lake basin (or groundwater aquifer) approach to
dealing with inter-state or inter-province water resources. This approach is also reflected in
the remit of the institutions created to administer the terms of the agreement. Whereas this
approach cannot be said to amount to a distinctive trend, there is evidence of a systematic
attempt to fashion the mutual rights and obligations of states and provinces on both sides of
the border in consonance with hydrologic and hydro-geologic lines of demarcation. One
final observation is that joint monitoring of water conditions, and relevant data exchange
programmes, which are the "bread and butter” of cooperation in relation to water resources
across inter-state and inter-province lines of federal jurisdictions (and equally of relations
among sovereign states in the international context), are provided for in a vast majority of the
agreements reviewed in this paper.
states with regard to the management and development of the water resources they share with other sovereign
states.
30
How the agreements reviewed in this paper actually fare on the ground is obviously quite a
separate matter, which is outside the scope of this paper. However, a systematic investigation
of the administration of inter-state and inter-province agreements, and of their effectiveness
on the ground, would constitute a valued complement to buttress or to qualify – the legal
analysis contained in this paper, and to enrich the conclusions offered.
31
REFERENCES
BENNETT, Lynne Lewis, HOWE, Charles W. and SHOPE, James (2000). "The Interstate
River Compact as a Water Allocation Mechanism: Efficiency Aspects.” American Journal
Agriculture and Economics 82(4) 1006-1015 November.
BURCHI, Stefano and MECHLEM, Kerstin, "Groundwater in international law Compilation
of treaties and other international legal instruments”, FAO, Legislative Study No.86,
Rome, 2005. This publication carries also a few inter-state and inter-province agreements
concluded in federal countries.
CHAUHAN, B.R., (1992). "Settlement of International and Inter-state water disputes in
India.” P.M. Bakshi ed., Indian Law Institute, N.M. Tripathi Bombay.
DE LUCIA VITO (Lead Author); Richard Reibstein (Topic Editor). 2008. “Polluter pays
principle.” In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland (Washington, D.C.:
Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the
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revised August 22, 2008; Retrieved August 28, 2008].

DEL CASTILLO, Lilian (2007), "La Gestión del Agua en Argentina.” Ciudad Argentina,
Buenos Aires Madrid.
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EARTH (2008)
http://www.eoearth.org/article/Surface_water_management
HANSEN, Karen M (2006). "The evolution of interstate water disputes into regional
cooperative management regimes: Launching a new model compact for interstate water
issues.” Eastern Water Law & Policy Reporter, May.
KILGOUR, D.M. and DINAR A. "Are Stable Agreements for Sharing International River
Waters Now Possible?” Policy Research Working Paper 1474. Washington DC: World
Bank, June 1995.
MUYS, Jeromy C., SHERK, GEORGE William, O’LEARY, Marilyn C. (2006). "Utton
Transboundary Resources Center Model Interestate Water Compact.” The Utton
Transboundary Resources Center. University of New Mexico School of Law. November.
WATZIN, MARY C. (2006). The Role of law, science, and the public process: practical
lessons from lake Champlain (US and Canada) and Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and
Albania). 19 Pacific McGeorge Global Business & Development Law Journal 241.
32
LIST OF AGREEMENTS ANALYZED
Argentina
FEDERAL WATER AGREEMENT (2003), between the Nation, the Provin ces, and the
Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.
Available at: http://www.lapampa.gov.ar/Publicaciones/BolOficial/Bof2004/bof2600a.htm
AGREEMENT BETWEEN LA PAMPA AND MENDOZA on the ATUEL RIVER (7
August 2008), on file with the author. See also, DEL CASTILLO, Lilian (2007), "La
Gestión del Agua en Argentina.” Ciudad Argentina, Buenos Aires Madrid.
Australia
BORDER GROUNDWATERS AGREEMENT (1985), between State of South Australia and
State of Victoria. Available at: http://faolex.fao.org/docs/texts/sa44224.doc
LAKE EYRE BASIN INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT (2000), between the
Commonwealth, State of Queensland and State of South Australia. Available at:
http://faolex.fao.org/docs/texts/aus25173.doc
INTERGOVERNMENT AGREEMENT FOR THE PAROO RIVER (2003), between New
South Wales and Queensland. Available at: http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/aus40700.pdf
INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT ON A NATIONAL ACTION PLAN FOR
SALINITY AND WATER QUALITY, between the Commonwealth of Australia, New
South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the
Northern Territory, and the Australian Capital Territory. Available at:
http://www.napswq.gov.au/publications/books/iga.html (YEAR?)
INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT ON A NATIONAL WATER INITIATIVE
(1994), between the Commonwealth of Australia and the Government of New South
Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory and the
Northern Territory.
Available at: http://www.nwc.gov.au/NWI/docs/iga_national_water_initiative.pdf
MURRAY-DARLING BASIN AGREEMENT, (2006), between the Commonwealth, New
South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. Available at:
http://www.mdbc.gov.au/__data/page/44/Murray-Darling_Basin_Agreement_full.pdf
NEW SOUTH WALES-QUEENSLAND AND BORDER RIVERS AGREEMENT (1946),
between New South Wales, and Queensland. Available at:
http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/CURRENT/N/NewSoWQBorRiA46.pdf
33
Canada
AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF QUEBEC AND THE
GOVERNMENT OF NEW BRUNSWICK ON TRANSBOUNDARY
ENVIRONMENT IMPACT (2002), Available at: http://www.gnb.ca/0009/0001-e.pdf
CANADA-ONTARIO AGREEMENT RESPECTING THE GREAT LAKES BASIN
ECOSYSTEM (2007), Available at: http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/coa/
MASTER AGREEMENT ON APPORTIONMENT BETWEEN CANADA, ALBERTA,
MANITOBA AND SASKATCHEWAN (1969),
Available at: http://www.mb.ec.gc.ca/water/fb01/fb00s04.en.html
Germany
AGREEMENT ON THE RESPECTIVE AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY OF THE RIVER
POLICE ON THE ELBE BETWEEN THE LANDER NIEDERSACHSEN AND
SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN, JANUARY (1974). Available at: http://faolex.org/
India
AGREEMENT OF JULY 12th, 1974 between Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and
Gujarat. Available at: B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), Settlement of International and Interstate
water disputes in India. P.M. Bakshi ed., Indian Law Institute, N.M. Tripathi
Bombay p. 252
AGREEMENT OF AUGUST 7th 1978 between the States of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh
and Andhra Pradesh. Available at: B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), op.cit., p. 264
MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT (1951) between Bombay, Hyderabad, Madhya Pradesh
and Madras. Available at: B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), op.cit. p.262
MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT OF DECEMBER 19th 1975 between Karnataka,
Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. Available at: B.R.
CHAUHAN (1992), op.cit, p. 263
AGREEMENT ON JANUARY 29th 1955 between ??? Available at: B.R. CHAUHAN
(1992), op.cit. p. 281
AGREEMENT BETWEEN INDIA, HARYANA, PUNJAB AND RAJASTHAN (1981).
Available at: B.R. CHAUHAN (1992), op.cit. p. 297
Nigeria
WATER CHARTER FOR SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE MANAGEMENT OF THE
HADEJA-JAMA’ARE-KOMADUGU-YOBE BASIN (2007), made by the states of
Bauchi, Borno, Jigawa, Kano, Plateau, and Yobe, and the Federal Government of
Nigeria (copy on file with the author).
34
United States
KANSAS-NEBRASKA-COLORADO REPUBLICAN RIVER COMPACT (1943).
Available at:
http://www.ksda.gov/includes/statute_regulations/interstate_water_issues/Republican_R
iver_Compact.pdf
OREGON-CALIFORNIA GOOSE LAKE INTERSTATE COMPACT (1963). California
Water Code Section 5950-5951
NEW ENGLAND INTERSTATE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMPACT (1969),
between Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont, U.S.
Available at: http://www.cga.ct.gov/2005/pub/Chap446g.htm
SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1972) between Pennsylvania, Maryland,
New York, and U.S.
Available at: http://www.srbc.net/about/srbc_compact.pdf
ARKANSAS RIVER BASIN COMPACT between Arkansas and Oklahoma (1970).
Available at: http://ssl.csg.org/compactlaws/arkansasoklahomariverbasin1970.html
ALABAMA-COOSA-TALLAPOOSA RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1997) between
Alabama, Georgia and U.S. Available at:
http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju55947.000/hju55947_0f.htm
CALIFORNIA-NEVADA INTERSTATE COMPACT (1990). California Water Code Section
5975-5976
DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMPACT (1961) between Delaware, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, New York and U.S.
Available at: http://archives.delaware.gov/collections/guide/0000s/0901-000-002.shtml
IDAHO-WASHINGTON INTERAGENCY AGREEMENT IN THE MATTER OF THE
COORDINATED MANAGEMENT OF THE PULLMAN-MOSCOW GROUND
WATER AQUIFER (1992). Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/y5739e/y5739e0b.htm
GREAT LAKES-ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN WATER RESOURCES COMPACT
DECEMBER 13th, (2005) between Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio,
Wisconsin and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Available at:
http://www.cglg.org/projects/water/docs/12-13-05/Great_Lakes-
St_Lawrence_River_Basin_Water_Resources_Compact.pdf
United States/Canada
GREAT LAKES-ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN SUSTAINABLE WATER
RESOURCES AGREEMENT, DECEMBER 13th 2005, between States of Illinois,
Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,
Wisconsin, the Province of Ontario and the Government of Québec.
35
MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN IDAHO DEPARTMENT OF
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND BRITISH COLUMBIA MINISTRY OF
WATER, LAND AND AIR PROTECTION, SEPTEMBER (2003). Available at:
http://www.deq.state.id.us/rules/mous/all_bc_idaho_2004_285_286_287.pdf
ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION AGREEMENT BETWEEN BRITISH COLUMBIA
AND WASHINGTON, MAY (1992).
Available at:http://www.coastsalishgathering.com/04resources/docs/ECCAgreement.pdf
Switzerland
AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE CANTONS OF BERN, FRIBOURG, VAUD AND
NEUCHATEL AGAINST THE DAMAGES CAUSED BY HYDROCARBONS,
February 1982 Available at: http://faolex.org/