Federal countries face critical decisions about how to deal with the wealth of their mineral resources, oil in particular. Building consent and avoiding opposition is difficult when regional governments and municipalities possess varying degrees of autonomy from the central government. The scale of the resources at stake often brings the interests of exploiting regions, other regions, and the central government into opposition. This paper is a summary of the first part of a research study of how oil wealth influences federal fiscal relations. Using qualitative comparative analysis, this paper provides a map and an explanation of intergovernmental disputes in twelve petrofederations: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, USA and Venezuela.